ethical competence in psychology

(c) When psychologists become aware that research procedures have harmed a participant, they take reasonable steps to minimize the harm. 1.08 Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents American Psychologist, 45, 390-395. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(1), 19-29. Competence is defined by Haas and Malouf (2005) as possessing the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values to effectively provide needed professional services, and having the ability to implement them effectively. 2.01 Boundaries of Competence (See also Standard 3.12, Interruption of Psychological Services.). Research. "Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology." Psychologists do not publish, as original data, data that have been previously published. Standard of developing and maintaining competence. 3.02 Sexual Harassment Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). (a) Public statements include but are not limited to paid or unpaid advertising, product endorsements, grant applications, licensing applications, other credentialing applications, brochures, printed matter, directory listings, personal resumes or curricula vitae, or comments for use in media such as print or electronic transmission, statements in legal proceedings, lectures and public oral presentations, and published materials. (a) Psychologists provide services, teach, and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study, or professional experience., Section 5: Advertising and Other Public Statements, Amendments to the 2002 “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” in 2010 and 2016, Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives. Please read assignment closely! 6.03 Withholding Records for Nonpayment While in other cultures, typically collectivist, these negative outcomes aren’t seen.... Research has shown that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares similar genetic roots with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ), 3.09 Cooperation with Other Professionals Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work. The program is titled the Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Training Kit (REST-KIT) and is based upon James Rest’s (1983) four-component model of moral decision making (Rogers-Sirin & Sirin, 2009). (b) Psychologists select scoring and interpretation services (including automated services) on the basis of evidence of the validity of the program and procedures as well as on other appropriate considerations. (1953). CHAPTER. American Psychologist, 23, 357-361. (b) Psychologists inform persons with questionable capacity to consent or for whom testing is mandated by law or governmental regulations about the nature and purpose of the proposed assessment services, using language that is reasonably understandable to the person being assessed. ), 1.05 Reporting Ethical Violations Generally, competence is established through training, experience, supervised practice, or a combination of these activities. By staying up-to-date on current research, literature, and practices, psychologists can guarantee they are providing the best possible services to their clients. Advancing the Culture of Competence. 10.06 Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. The American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) have multiple standards on competence. They conduct the research in accordance with the approved research protocol. “Competencies” are elements of competence (Kaslow et al., 2004) that are observable, measurable, containable, practical, derived by experts, and flexible (Stratford, 1994). 7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy To the degree to which they exercise control, psychologists responsible for announcements, catalogs, brochures, or advertisements describing workshops, seminars, or other non-degree-granting educational programs ensure that they accurately describe the audience for which the program is intended, the educational objectives, the presenters, and the fees involved. Save Citation »  (Works with EndNote, ProCite, & Reference Manager), Dean, D. M. (2010). (d) If limitations to services can be anticipated because of limitations in financing, this is discussed with the recipient of services as early as is feasible. The REST-KIT was designed to “(a) improve the ethical and racial sensitivity of school professionals and trainees by grounding ethical decision making, in relation to racism and discrimination, in professional codes of ethics and (b) provide the necessary skills to address the ethical dilemmas in participants’ professional lives” (p. 28). Ethical principles of psychologists. To aid in this attempt at competency, researchers have developed guidelines for psychologists to remain competent in their field. This section consists of General Principles. Another example of an ethical dilemma being debated in current research in regards to competency is what to do when you need a third-party to facilitate in the therapeutic relationship, as is the case with interpreters. The Code became effective on June 1, 2003. (a) Psychologists terminate therapy when it becomes reasonably clear that the client/patient no longer needs the service, is not likely to benefit, or is being harmed by continued service. Psychologists may dispense with informed consent only (1) where research would not reasonably be assumed to create distress or harm and involves (a) the study of normal educational practices, curricula, or classroom management methods conducted in educational settings; (b) only anonymous questionnaires, naturalistic observations, or archival research for which disclosure of responses would not place participants at risk of criminal or civil liability or damage their financial standing, employability, or reputation, and confidentiality is protected; or (c) the study of factors related to job or organization effectiveness conducted in organizational settings for which there is no risk to participants' employability, and confidentiality is protected or (2) where otherwise permitted by law or federal or institutional regulations. (See also Standard 3.05, Multiple Relationships.). (See also Standards 3.05, Multiple relationships, and 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality. This standard does not preclude an instructor from modifying course content or requirements when the instructor considers it pedagogically necessary or desirable, so long as students are made aware of these modifications in a manner that enables them to fulfill course requirements. The newsletter highlights recent selections from the journal and useful tips from our blog. By staying up-to-date on current research, literature, and practices, psychologists can guarantee they are providing the best possible services to their clients. American Psychological Association (APA). Ethical Notes. (See also Standards 2.01e, Boundaries of Competence, and 3.10, Informed Consent.). Working With Foreign Language Interpreters: Recommendations for Psychological Practice. 2.04 Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments American Psychological Association. At times the APA 2002 Ethics Code can be in conflict with the client’s best interest, especially if the client adheres to different personal ethics or standards. Psychologists do not exploit persons over whom they have supervisory, evaluative or other authority such as clients/patients, students, supervisees, research participants, and employees. Principle C: Integrity Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. (d) Psychologists make reasonable efforts to minimize the discomfort, infection, illness, and pain of animal subjects. 5.04 Media Presentations (See also Standard 3.05, Multiple Relationships.). Mere possession of an institutional position, such as department chair, does not justify authorship credit. The first domain is composed of foundational competencies. Integrating Evidence-Based Practice, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, and Multicultural Therapy: Ten Steps for Culturally Competent Practice. Psychologists who develop tests and other assessment techniques use appropriate psychometric procedures and current scientific or professional knowledge for test design, standardization, validation, reduction or elimination of bias, and recommendations for use. (a) Psychologists maintain confidentiality in creating, storing, accessing, transferring, and disposing of records under their control, whether these are written, automated, or in any other medium. (See also Standard 8.12b, Publication Credit.). (a) As early as is feasible in a professional or scientific relationship, psychologists and recipients of psychological services reach an agreement specifying compensation and billing arrangements. One needs to be able to identify unethical situations and have the abilities necessary to correct them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. The present research provides a comprehensive overview about recent approaches and empirically explores the interconnections of these constructs. The definition given states that an ethical dilemma is defined as when “there are good but contradictory ethical reasons to take conflicting and incompatible courses of action” (1984, p. 43). (g) When it is appropriate that an animal's life be terminated, psychologists proceed rapidly, with an effort to minimize pain and in accordance with accepted procedures. Assessment and Evaluation. Psychologists do not engage in sexual relationships with students or supervisees who are in their department, agency, or training center or over whom psychologists have or are likely to have evaluative authority. People are still... Shame is an adaptive emotion. These strategies can be applied in clinical settings by clinically-based education, ethics consultations, ethics rounds, clinical supervision, and ethics committees. Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows: Informed Consent Informed Consent. Learn more | Blog | Submit. 5.06 In-Person Solicitation This study focused on using the REST-KIT with educators but could potentially be applicable for psychologists as well. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons, and the welfare of animal subjects of research. In their reports to payors for services or sources of research funding, psychologists take reasonable steps to ensure the accurate reporting of the nature of the service provided or research conducted, the fees, charges, or payments, and where applicable, the identity of the provider, the findings, and the diagnosis. In addition, APA may take action against a member after his or her conviction of a felony, expulsion or suspension from an affiliated state psychological association, or suspension or loss of licensure. (b) Psychologists do not make false, deceptive, or fraudulent statements concerning (1) their training, experience, or competence; (2) their academic degrees; (3) their credentials; (4) their institutional or association affiliations; (5) their services; (6) the scientific or clinical basis for, or results or degree of success of, their services; (7) their fees; or (8) their publications or research findings. According to Rogers-Sirin & Sirin (2009), Rest (1983) suggested that morality is not a unitary process but rather a multifaceted phenomenon. The development of a dynamic set of ethical standards for psychologists' work-related conduct requires a personal commitment and lifelong effort to act ethically; to encourage ethical behavior by students, supervisees, employees, and colleagues; and to consult with others concerning ethical problems. Information regarding the process is provided to the student at the beginning of supervision. This model involves “the psychologist asking himself or herself a variety of questions to review personal reactions, determine the facts of the case, make a preliminary plan, examine the legal consequences of the initial plan, identify and assess options to refine the initial plan, choose a course of action, and implement the decision and evaluate the outcome” (p. 153). 8.09 Humane Care and Use of Animals in Research (See also Standard 8.02a, Informed Consent to Research. Although the Preamble and General Principles are not themselves enforceable rules, they should be considered by psychologists in arriving at an ethical course of action. Although this may be true, the true reason for referral is racism. Psychologists are committed to increasing scientific and professional knowledge of behavior and people's understanding of themselves and others and to the use of such knowledge to improve the condition of individuals, organizations, and society. 2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts These are all dilemmas that a psychologist might face when working with clients with limited English proficiency. Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures, and services being conducted by psychologists. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. If this Ethics Code establishes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psychologists must meet the higher ethical standard. American Psychological Association. Psychologists responsible for education and training programs take reasonable steps to ensure that there is a current and accurate description of the program content (including participation in required course- or program-related counseling, psychotherapy, experiential groups, consulting projects, or community service), training goals and objectives, stipends and benefits, and requirements that must be met for satisfactory completion of the program. Psychologists do not terminate therapy to circumvent this standard. (2009). Psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work. Component I of his model is ethical sensitivity. (See also Standards 2.02, Providing Services in Emergencies; 3.05, Multiple Relationships; 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality; 9.01, Bases for Assessments; 9.02, Use of Assessments; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 9.07, Assessment by Unqualified Persons.). The purpose of an ethics code is “to reflect an explicit value system as well as clearly articulated decisional and behavioral rules” (Fisher, 2009) in which all members of the group following the code agree to adhere to. (1992). (See also Standards 8.02, Informed Consent to Research; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapy.). Ethical standards of psychologists. ), 4.01 Maintaining Confidentiality (See also Standard 5.03, Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs.). 5.03 Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs The Ethical Practice of Psychotherapy: Easily Within Our Reach. , Dean, Danielle M. 2010. ), 9.07 Assessment by Unqualified Persons client termination, informed consent, client 3. Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work. 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information When psychotherapists face ethical dilemmas, Barnett (2008) states they will seek information from the law, professional publications, and colleagues to guide them in their decision-making. These Guidelines are relevant to the supervision arrangements that psychologists undertake in order to maintain and develop their professional competence. Kerns, R. D., Berry, S., Frantsve, L. M., & Linton, J. C. (2009). When consulting with colleagues, (1) psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the identification of a client/patient, research participant, or other person or organization with whom they have a confidential relationship unless they have obtained the prior consent of the person or organization or the disclosure cannot be avoided, and (2) they disclose information only to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation. Shiles (2009) argued that there is an ethical dilemma between Standards 2.01(b) (Boundaries of Competence) and 3.01 (Unfair Discrimination) of the APA 2002 Ethics Code. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 569-575. Characterized by “feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration [that] interfere with everyday... Western society is becoming increasingly secular as religion disappears from the public sphere. (See also Standard 3.10, Informed Consent.). Differences in Ethical Decision-Making and Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Anxiety and Depression, Placebo Administration to Depressed Patients: An Analysis of the Ethics of the Placebo in Clinical Practice, Pain and Power: BDSM as Spiritual Expression, A Quantitative Evaluation of Shame Resilience Theory, Understanding Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Teenagers with High-Functioning Autism, Intergenerational Intimate Partner Violence: Pathways of Genetic and Environmental Interactions, The Weight of Emotions on Decision-Making: A Comparative Analysis, A Historical Perspective on the Cultural Connotations Surrounding Eating Disorders, The Psychology of Romance: The Impact of Personality Traits on Romantic Relationships. Psychologists do not knowingly make public statements that are false, deceptive, or fraudulent concerning their research, practice, or other work activities or those of persons or organizations with which they are affiliated. 2.03 Maintaining CompetencePsychologists undertake ongoing efforts to develop and maintain their competence. 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation It is important to note that the specialty adheres to the principles and ethical code of conduct of the American Psychological Association, which apply to all aspects of professional practice in professional psychology, and that, thus, there are no specialty-specific principles or a code of ethical conduct specific to counseling psychology. Psychologists are held to a high standard of professional competence given the sensitive nature of their work and the potential for high-stakes impact. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Home | Current Issue | Blog | Archives | Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 3(4(Suppl. The objective of the present research was two-fold: (1) to provide a new definition of ethical competence, and (2) to clarify the influence of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality on ethical competence. If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. (See also Standards 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality, and 6.01, Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records.). (a) After research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release. APA may impose sanctions on its members for violations of the standards of the Ethics Code, including termination of APA membership, and may notify other bodies and individuals of its actions. (See also Standard 10.10, Terminating Therapy.). (c) Psychologists planning to provide services, teach, or conduct research involving populations, areas, techniques, or technologies new to them undertake relevant education, training, supervised experience, consultation, or study. According to Sporrong and colleagues, ethical competence at work requires the ability to integrate perception, reflection, and action, and to understand oneself as being responsible for one’s own actions. (d) When psychologists are asked to provide services to individuals for whom appropriate mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the competence necessary, psychologists with closely related prior training or experience may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied if they make a reasonable effort to obtain the competence required by using relevant research, training, consultation, or study. (c) When the therapist is a trainee and the legal responsibility for the treatment provided resides with the supervisor, the client/patient, as part of the informed consent procedure, is informed that the therapist is in training and is being supervised and is given the name of the supervisor. (b) Psychologists disclose confidential information without the consent of the individual only as mandated by law, or where permitted by law for a valid purpose such as to (1) provide needed professional services; (2) obtain appropriate professional consultations; (3) protect the client/patient, psychologist, or others from harm; or (4) obtain payment for services from a client/patient, in which instance disclosure is limited to the minimum that is necessary to achieve the purpose. Retrieved June 14, 2010, from Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications are acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or in an introductory statement. (See also Standards 4.05, Disclosures; 6.03, Withholding Records for Nonpayment; and 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapy. 2010 amendments to the 2002 “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.” American Psychologist, 65, 493. This Ethics Code provides a common set of principles and standards upon which psychologists build their professional and scientific work. (See also Standard 2.05, Delegation of Work to Others.). (c) Except under exceptional circumstances, a student is listed as principal author on any multiple-authored article that is substantially based on the student's doctoral dissertation. The 2002 Ethics Code consists of the Introduction and Applicability Section, Preamble, General Principles, and Enforceable Standards. They strive to help the public in developing informed judgments and choices concerning human behavior. (See also Standard 7.02, Descriptions of Education and Training Programs. (b) Psychologists' fee practices are consistent with law. Psychologists do not engage in sexual harassment. Sporrong et al. In applying the Ethics Code to their professional work, psychologists may consider other materials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed by scientific and professional psychological organizations and the dictates of their own conscience, as well as consult with others within the field. ), (b) When engaged in teaching or training, psychologists present psychological information accurately. Psychologists do not file or encourage the filing of ethics complaints that are made with reckless disregard for or willful ignorance of facts that would disprove the allegation. [Google Scholar]) eight-step ethical decision-making model to the ethicality of deciding on or abstaining from conducting competence for execution evaluations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 354-360. Read Standard 2. Copyright © 2017 American Psychological Association. The procedures for filing, investigating, and resolving complaints of unethical conduct are described in the current Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee. Developing Ethical Competence in Health Care Organizations. 8.11 Plagiarism I will need assignment by 1:00 am EST! Clinical Competency and Ethics in Psychology. A quick look at both the AASP and APA ethical guidelines reveal several areas linked to developing and maintaining cultural competence. Psychologists create, and to the extent the records are under their control, maintain, disseminate, store, retain, and dispose of records and data relating to their professional and scientific work in order to (1) facilitate provision of services later by them or by other professionals, (2) allow for replication of research design and analyses, (3) meet institutional requirements, (4) ensure accuracy of billing and payments, and (5) ensure compliance with law. When, despite reasonable efforts, such an examination is not practical, psychologists document the efforts they made and the result of those efforts, clarify the probable impact of their limited information on the reliability and validity of their opinions, and appropriately limit the nature and extent of their conclusions or recommendations. Instead she argues that competency lies on a continuum and there are many facets to competency which can be expanded through a variety of ways. A psychologist refrains from entering into a multiple relationship if the multiple relationship could reasonably be expected to impair the psychologist's objectivity, competence, or effectiveness in performing his or her functions as a psychologist, or otherwise risks exploitation or harm to the person with whom the professional relationship exists. 2.02 Providing Services in EmergenciesIn emergencies, when psychologists provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the necessary training, psychologists may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied. Adults Report Depression”). (See also Standards 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality; 4.04, Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy; and 4.05, Disclosures. Psychologists do not present portions of another's work or data as their own, even if the other work or data source is cited occasionally. Discuss ethical standards pertaining to The Ethical Standards are not exhaustive. These standards are as follows: (a) Psychologists provide services, teach, and conduct research with populations and in areas only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study, or professional experience. Licensed clinical psychologists will encounter many ethical dilemmas regarding competency during their careers. Psychologists must remain competent in their field to be able to practice ethically. They are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities to society and to the specific communities in which they work. (a) When psychologists conduct research or provide assessment, therapy, counseling, or consulting services in person or via electronic transmission or other forms of communication, they obtain the informed consent of the individual or individuals using language that is reasonably understandable to that person or persons except when conducting such activities without consent is mandated by law or governmental regulation or as otherwise provided in this Ethics Code. These two ethical standards frequently come into conflict. According to Searight & Searight (2009), psychologists practicing under the APA 2002 Ethics Code will likely have to address the conflict between promoting the client’s welfare and insuring competence when delegating services. If an apparent ethical violation has substantially harmed or is likely to substantially harm a person or organization and is not appropriate for informal resolution under Standard 1.04, Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations, or is not resolved properly in that fashion, psychologists take further action appropriate to the situation. (a) Psychologists administer, adapt, score, interpret, or use assessment techniques, interviews, tests, or instruments in a manner and for purposes that are appropriate in light of the research on or evidence of the usefulness and proper application of the techniques. Psychologists undertake ongoing efforts to develop and maintain their competence. However, these studies present relatively unaddressed ethical concerns. By being aware of potential conflicts in ethics beforehand, psychologists can take preventive measures to avoid having to face an ethical dilemma. It is an ethical standard to remain competence throughout one’s psychological career and it is through competency that one can make sound ethical decisions. (See also Standard 6.04e, Fees and Financial Arrangements. Develops … According to recent estimates, over nine percent of the United States population has some degree of depression—a proportion that makes depression one of the most common and serious mental conditions in the country (“An Estimated 1 in 10 U.S. Psychologists may refrain from releasing test data to protect a client/patient or others from substantial harm or misuse or misrepresentation of the data or the test, recognizing that in many instances release of confidential information under these circumstances is regulated by law. Yet, competence is not static and is easily impacted by the presence of distress in the psychotherapist (Dunning, Johnson, Ehrlinger, … (2016). (n.d.). 1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority December 1, 2020. (a) Psychologists include in written and oral reports and consultations, only information germane to the purpose for which the communication is made. This information must be made readily available to all interested parties. This is the identification of the salient ethical aspects of a situation. The current version of the ethics code, which introduced the distinction between … Available: 8.01 Institutional Approval Supervision. Understand the ethics of therapist competence. Ethical standards of psychologists. Although relevant to all psychologists, these Guidelines For example, if a psychologist is racist against African-Americans, they could refer an African-American client to another psychologist saying they are not competent to work with African-Americans because they do not know enough about their culture. General Principles, as opposed to Ethical Standards, are aspirational in nature. These standards are particularly relevant to clinical psychologists in Illinois given the fact that under The Clinical Psychologist Licensing Act, those licensed in this state are not required to continue their education after licensure. 5.05 Testimonials 8.15 Reviewers Third, psychologists must know when to refer and when not to, thus recognizing when they do or do not have access to obtain the knowledge or appropriate experience required. It is important to understand the meaning of competence and its importance in all fields of psychology. Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior, and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm. A. Shiles, M. (2009). Psychologists do not promote the use of psychological assessment techniques by unqualified persons, except when such use is conducted for training purposes with appropriate supervision. Ethical Considerations in Criminal Justice Research: Informed Consent and Confidentiality, The Ethical Dilemma of When to Publish News. When psychologists believe that there may have been an ethical violation by another psychologist, they attempt to resolve the issue by bringing it to the attention of that individual, if an informal resolution appears appropriate and the intervention does not violate any confidentiality rights that may be involved. Introduction and Applicability Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence In doing so, they perform many roles, such as researcher, educator, diagnostician, therapist, supervisor, consultant, administrator, social interventionist, and expert witness. When covering a story that will negatively impact the public it is often important for a news organization to break the story as quickly as possible. (b) When psychologists become aware of personal problems that may interfere with their performing work-related duties adequately, they take appropriate measures, such as obtaining professional consultation or assistance, and determine whether they should limit, suspend, or terminate their work-related duties. (See also Standard 3.05c, Multiple Relationships.). In the AASP code’s General Ethical Standards one can also find relevant references to teaching in the second standard (AASP, 1996): 2) Boundaries of Competence: AASP members trained in the sport sciences must be aware of their limitations in clinical and counseling psychology. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 425-435. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and... Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee, 1.02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority, 1.03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands, 1.04, Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations, 1.08, Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents, 7.07, Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees, 10.05, Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.06, Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.07, Therapy with Former Sexual Partners, 10.08, Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients, 6.02c, Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work, 8.03, Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research, 8.05, Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research, 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments, 6.01, Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records, 3.12, Interruption of Psychological Services, 3.09, Cooperation with Other Professionals, 5.03, Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs, 5.01, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 7.02, Descriptions of Education and Training Programs, 5.01a, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality, 2018 APA Ethics Committee Rules and Procedures, APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2017), Revision of Ethical Standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as Amended 2010), 2010 Amendments to the 2002 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct", © 2020 American Psychological Association. (2010). In situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques. Psychologists who delegate work to employees, supervisees, or research or teaching assistants or who use the services of others, such as interpreters, take reasonable steps to (1) avoid delegating such work to persons who have a multiple relationship with those being served that would likely lead to exploitation or loss of objectivity; (2) authorize only those responsibilities that such persons can be expected to perform competently on the basis of their education, training, or experience, either independently or with the level of supervision being provided; and (3) see that such persons perform these services competently. Competence. 4.04 Minimizing Intrusions on Privacy (f) When assuming forensic roles, psychologists are or become reasonably familiar with the judicial or administrative rules governing their roles. Standards of competency represent the foundation for the credibility of any profession. Psychologists may not withhold records under their control that are requested and needed for a client's/patient's emergency treatment solely because payment has not been received. Gallardo and colleagues (2009) ask the question, “do practitioners and students begin their therapeutic decision-making process with an ethical lens first and foremost, or do they begin the therapeutic process with a cultural lens at the forefront?” (p. 427).

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